04. Personality Disorder
Personality or character disorders are among some of the common types of mental illnesses. Those affected with such disorders have abnormal personality and behavioral patterns that clash with the social norms and expectations. They find it difficult to deal with people and to form healthy relationships. Such people are rigid in their thinking pattern and behavior, thereby leading to problems whenever they interact with people. Some of the common types of personality disorders are antisocial personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder and paranoid personality disorder.
There are 3 categories of personality disorder:
Odd and unusual behavior - includes paranoid personality (a person who feels that everyone and everything is against them when in reality this is not true) and Schizoid personality (apathetic to others and no desire to socialize). Another type is schizotypal personality disorder, which makes people extremely anxious in social situations. They may find it difficult to form relationships.
Next is dramatic, emotional or erratic behavior, which is seen in an antisocial personality (who has no respect for rules and regulations and often violates them, causing harm to others). This category includes borderline personality (erratic emotions and stress) too. Those with histrionic personality are attention seekers and manipulators. People with narcissistic personality are self-centered to the core.
The third category of personality disorders deals with those having an anxious and fearful nature. This group includes: avoidant personality disorder (fear of taking risks, gullible, hypersensitive, avoids all things that include social interaction), dependent personality disorder (dependent and submissive nature, allow others to take personal decisions, uncomfortable while lonely, need constant assurance) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (repetitive, compelling thoughts and obsessions concerning things that are not real - for instance, cleaning things that are already clean).
These disorders are characterized by a persistent pattern of noticeably unusual behavior and ways of thinking. A paranoid personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of misgiving and distrust a person with this disorder will misconstrue other people's intentions as being hateful. a schizoid personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of disinterest in social relationships. A person with this disorder may be fearful of close interaction with others. They also have a limited range of emotional expression.
People with schizotypal personality disorder are socially and emotionally distant. Their thinking process is odd and distorted, and these oddities are evident through their speech and behavior. An antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of disregarding and violating the rights of others. People with this disorder typically do not feel remorse or guilt after inflicting harm upon others. This disorder usually develops in adolescence and often continues into adulthood, although the severity of the disorder can diminish as a person ages. A borderline personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of instability in relationships. A person with this disorder also displays symptoms of impulsiveness and irritability.
05. Uncultured disorder- not-polished, unmanly lower levels of mentality buy any things from the footpath, second hand or borrowing from others,
Human behavior is affected both by genetic inheritance and by experience. The ways in which people develop are shaped by social experience and circumstances within the background of their present at birth genetic potential. The systematic question is just how experience and traditional budding interact in producing human behavior.
Each person is born into a social and cultural setting—family, community, social class, language, religion—and eventually develops many social connections. The characteristics of a person’s social setting affect how he or she learns to think and behave, by means of instruction, rewards and punishment, and example. This setting includes home, school, neighborhood, and also, perhaps, local religious and law enforcement agencies. Then there are also the person’s mostly informal interactions with friends, other peers, relatives, and the entertainment and news media. How individuals will respond to all these influences, or even which influence will be the most potent, tends not to be predictable. There is, however, some substantial similarity in how individuals respond to the same pattern of influences—that is, to being raised in the same culture. Furthermore, culturally induced behavior patterns, such as speech patterns, body language, and forms of humor, become so deeply imbedded in the human mind that they often operate without the individuals themselves being fully aware of them.
Every culture includes a somewhat different web of patterns and meanings: ways of earning a living, systems of trade and government, social roles, religions, traditions in clothing and foods and arts, expectations for behavior, attitudes toward other cultures, and beliefs and values about all of these activities. Within a large society, there may be many groups, with distinctly different subcultures associated with region, ethnic origin, or social class. If a single culture is dominant in a large region, its values may be considered correct and may be promoted—not only by families and religious groups but also by schools and governments. Some subcultures may arise among special social categories (such as business executives and criminals), some of which may cross national boundaries (such as musicians and scientists).
Fair or unfair, desirable or undesirable, social distinctions are a salient part of almost every culture. The form of the distinctions varies with place and time, sometimes including rigid castes, sometimes tribal or clan hierarchies, sometimes a more flexible social class. Class distinctions are made chiefly on the basis of wealth, education, and occupation, but they are also likely to be associated with other sub-cultural differences, such as dress, dialect, and attitudes toward school and work. These economic, political, and cultural distinctions are recognized by almost all members of a society—and resented by some of them.
The class into which people are born affects what language, diet, tastes, and interests they will have as children, and therefore influences how they will perceive the social world. Moreover, class affects what pressures and opportunities people will experience and therefore affects what paths their lives are likely to take—including schooling, occupation, marriage, and standard of living. Still, many people live lives very different from the norm for their class.
In addition to belonging to the social and cultural settings into which they are born, people voluntarily join groups based on shared occupations, beliefs, or interests (such as unions, political parties, or clubs). Membership in these groups influences how people think of themselves and how others think of them. These groups impose expectations and rules that make the behavior of members more predictable and that enable each group to function smoothly and retain its identity. The rules may be informal and conveyed by example, such as how to behave at a social gathering, or they may be written rules that are strictly enforced. Formal groups often signal the kind of behavior they favor by means of rewards (such as praise, prizes, or privileges) and punishments (such as threats, fines, or rejection).
In these disorders, there is a trouble in realization, memory, identity, or perception. The trouble may occur unexpectedly, or it may gradually develop. It can also take the form of a brief affliction or a chronic condition.
A person with Dissociative amnesia is unable to recall relevant personal information. The “forgotten” information is usually disturbing to the individual, and of a traumatic nature. For example, a person who attempts to commit suicide might not later remember anything at all regarding the incident.
A Dissociative fugue is characterized by a sudden loss of personal identity and of the memory of one's past life. This is accompanied by the tendency to suddenly wander far from one's home or place of work. In some cases, the individual also assumes a new identity. The disorder can last from a couple of hours to several months.. It is a rare disorder.
06. Jealousy disorder:
Delusional jealousy is a mental disorder where a person has delusional beliefs around the idea that the person with whom they are romantically involved with is cheating on them. It is sometimes called gloomy jealousy or Othello syndrome, taking its name from Shakespeare's play in which delusions of infidelity play a major role. Less common names for the condition are erotic jealously syndrome and sexual jealousy. Sometimes it is a situation of its own, but more often it is a symptom of another psychiatric disorder.
Psychiatric professionals distinguish between regular jealously and jealous behavior that may be delusional. A healthy sense of jealousy or suspicion only occurs as a response to evidence of infidelity. It also changes over time to reflect the facts surrounding a situation. Jealous delusions have no basis in reality, or do not change in the face of new facts or proof otherwise. These delusions manifest themselves in obsessive thoughts that can become the center of the person's life. A person suffering from delusional jealousy will often repeatedly accuse his or her loved one of infidelity, constantly search for evidence to prove the accusations and may even resort to stalking both the significant other and the person whom they think they may be cheating with.
As the delusions progress, they can also take up the entirety of a person’s life. Personal and professional relationships can begin to suffer, and the mental health of the person with the delusions can degrade even further. Delusional jealously can even become life-threatening for those suffering from it and the people around them. Stalking behavior based on delusions can turn violent. Suicide is also a concern, as the delusions can lead to severe depression.
Many times, delusional jealousy is a symptom to another mental disorder. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) can often lead to delusions. Sufferers of BPD frequently go through periods of extreme anxiety and depression. They also tend to be defensive and easily offended. All of these combined tend to make them more susceptible to feelings of jealously, and extreme cases can lead to delusions associated with jealous thoughts. Depression and other mental problems such as bipolar disorders and schizophrenia can also lead to delusions of infidelity. External factors such as sexual dysfunction or drug and alcohol abuse have also been shown to contribute to delusional jealousy.
Gloomy jealousy is encountered in general; old age and forensic psychiatry, and clinicians in each specialty should be familiar with its recognition and management. As well as clinical matters, the issue of risk to the patient and others is prominent in the consideration of morbid jealousy. Hospitalization is sometimes required, the use of compulsory admission is not infrequent and treatment in secure settings is occasionally warranted. This review addresses the nature of dark jealousy, its psychopathology, diagnostic issues, associations, risks and management.
07. Lying disorder
Some Psychiatric Conditions and Pathological Lying
Definition: Pathological lying is falsification entirely disproportionate to any discernible end in view, engaged in by a person who, at the time of observation, cannot definitely be
Declared insane, feebleminded, or epileptic. Such lying rarely, if ever, centers about a single event; although exhibited in very occasional cases for a short time, it manifests itself most frequently by far over a period of years, or even a life time. It represents a trait rather than an episode. Extensive, very complicated fabrications may be evolved.
Psychiatric conditions that have been traditionally associated with deception in one form or another include Malingering, Factitious Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder. Lying may also occur in Histrionic and Narcissistic Personality Disorders. A brief description of these conditions will be offered for the purpose of comparing them with pathological lying. Although delusion is not traditionally associated with intentional deception, it has been included to highlight the difficulty of referring to pathological lying as delusional.
It is true that in the previous reporting, under the head of pathological liars, cases of epilepsy, insanity, and mental defect have been cited, but that is misleading. A clear Terminology should be adopted. The pathological liar forms a species by himself and as such does not necessarily belong to any of these larger classes. It is, of course, scientifically permissible, as well as practically valuable; to speak of the epileptic or the otherwise abnormal person through his disease engaging in pathological lying, but the main classification of an individual should be decided by the main abnormal condition.
A good definition of pathological accusation follows the above lines. It is false accusation indulged in apart from any obvious purpose. Like the swindling of pathological liars, it appears objectively more pernicious than the lying, but it is an expression of the same tendency. The most striking form of this type of conduct is, of course, self-accusation. Mendacious self impeachment seems especially convincing of abnormality. Such
Falsification not infrequently is episodic.
A range of natural and psychosocial choices are available for the executive of dark jealousy. These take account of prescription, psychiatric therapy and hospital right of entry.
Cognitive therapy is effective in morose jealousy, mainly when manias are well-known. Also approved are connect therapy and individual dynamic psychotherapy. Active psychotherapy has a place in the treatment of morbidly jealous persons in whom personality disorders with intermediate and suspicious behavior are present.
Import mistreatment should be addressed where necessary, using standard accepted methods such as motivational interviewing.
Managing of dark jealousy
Principles of supervision:
Treat the mental disorder
Handle the hazard
Treatment of any material mistreatment
Baby safeguard procedures
Admittance to hospital (obligatory confinement if essential)
Environmental disjointing of the buddies
Conclusion: As a species, we are social beings who live out our lives in the company of other humans. We organize ourselves into various kinds of social groupings, such as nomadic bands, villages, cities, and countries, in which we work, trade, play, reproduce, and interact in many other ways. Unlike other species,. Consequently, the patterns of human society differ from place to place and era to era and across cultures, making the social world a very complex and dynamic environment.
Insight into human behavior comes from many sources. The views presented here are based principally on scientific investigation, but it should also be recognized that literature, drama, history, philosophy, and other nonscientific disciplines contribute significantly to our understanding of us. Social scientists study human behavior from a variety of cultural, political, economic, and psychological perspectives, using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. They look for consistent patterns of individual and social behavior and for scientific explanations of those patterns. In some cases, such patterns may seem obvious once they are pointed out, although they may not have been part of how most people consciously thought about the world. In other cases, the patterns—as revealed by scientific investigation—may show people that their long-held beliefs about certain aspects of human behavior are incorrect.
This chapter covers recommendations about human society in terms of individual and group behavior, social organizations, and the processes of social change. It is based on a particular approach to the subject: the sketching of a comprehensible picture of the world that is consistent with the findings of the separate disciplines within the social sciences—such as anthropology, economics, political science, sociology, and psychology—but without attempting to describe the findings themselves or the underlying methodologies.
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MOHAMMAD WAHID ABDULLAH KHAN Dhaka, Bangladesh, is a PhD Candidate in "Criminal Psychology" as well he is “freelance Author, online columnists, Human psychoanalyst, industrial psychotherapist, Certified Financial Consultant, & Certified Forensic Accountant, too dynamic entrepreneur, utilize creativity leadership and teamwork to design and execute solutions that creates customer value.
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